IIT Roorkee researchers identify the great role

IIT Roorkee researchers led by Professor Pranita P. Sarangi have shown the role of specific immune cell markers on the outcomes of severe infection and sepsis.

Professor Pranita is from Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering at IIT Roorkee. This study by IIT Roorkee researchers funded by BioCARe Women Scientist grant and Innovative Young Biotechnologist Award grant from the Department of Biotechnology of Government of India has provided important insights into the role of immune cell markers on sepsis-related complications.

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IIT Roorkee researchersWhite Blood Cells
Neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages are white blood cells that act as scavengers of dead cells and foreign bodies such as bacteria and other pathogens, say IIT Roorkee researchers.

They move from the blood to the site of infection to mop up the disease-causing foreign matter. However, in uncontrolled and severe infection, commonly called ‘sepsis’, there is abnormal activation and localization of these immune cells, say IIT Roorkee researchers.

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As a result, these cells form ensembles, move around the body, and get deposited in important organs such as the lung, kidney, and liver, which could lead to multi-organ failure or even death.

IIT Roorkee researchers

Speaking about her research, Professor Pranita P Sarangi said Given the importance of monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in sepsis, it is important to understand the mechanism of the migration of such cells to detect the stages of inflammation and sepsis.

IIT Roorkee researchersBlood vessels
When these immune cells travel from the blood vessels through tissue spaces to reach the infected/inflamed site, they bind to proteins such as collagen or fibronectin, say IIT Roorkee researchers.

This binding occurs via receptor molecules called integrins that are present on the cell surfaces. The integrin receptors enable communication between the immune cells and the surrounding matrix, which helps in cell migration and modulation of other functions. However, their over-activity (called hyper-activation), can result in problems, say IIT Roorkee researchers.

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IIT Roorkee researchersStudy
In this study, Professor Sarangi’s group used two mouse models of sepsis to show the role of integrins in sepsis. When there is an infection, monocytes move from blood circulation and bone marrow towards the infected/inflamed tissue.

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Once inside the tissues, these monocytes further mature into macrophages and by sensing the signals from the septic environment, these cells gradually switch their functions from inflammatory to immunosuppressive subtype that correlate with their integrin expression profile, say IIT Roorkee researchers.

These findings will help in detecting the stages of sepsis and appropriate treatment, said the lead researcher, Mr. Shiba Prasad Dash, who is currently perusing his PhD under the guidance of Professor Sarangi.

IIT Roorkee researchersResearch
Speaking about research work by IIT Roorkee researchers, Professor Ajit K. Chaturvedi, Director of IIT Roorkee said the work advances the current understanding of sepsis biology and may be helpful in the development of therapeutics against this life-threatening condition.

Results from this work by IIT Roorkee researchers have been published in The Journal of Immunology, the official journal of the American Association of Immunologists (AAI) and presented at the international conferences organized by the Indian Immunology Society (Immunocon-2019).

IIT Roorkee researchersAbout IIT Roorkee

IIT Roorkee is an institute of national importance imparting higher education in engineering, sciences, management, architecture and planning, and humanities and social sciences. Since its establishment in 1847, the Institute has played a vital role in providing technical human resources and know-how to the country.

The vision of the institution is to attain global level of excellence in education and to create a sustainable and equitable society through innovative research in science and technology.

The mission of IIT Roorkee is to create an environment that shall foster the growth of intellectually capable, innovative and entrepreneurial professionals, who shall contribute to the growth of Science and Technology in partnership with industry and develop and harness it for the welfare of the nation and mankind.

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